he idea of establishing a model of integrated transport in the wider Zagreb area dates back to the beginning of the 1990s when the selected working group was composed of representatives of the City of Zagreb, Croatian Railways, and ZET, and they conducted a study tour in order to gain experience in the application of the integrated transport in EU cities and regions. The visit and exchange of experiences of wide region of Vienna, Munich, Frankfurt and Zurich was conducted, when the Tariff Union and the Organization of integrated passenger transport were established back in the 1970s.
In order to determine the justifiability of using such a model in the area of the City of Zagreb and its wider environment, the study of integrated passenger transport in the City of Zagreb, Zagreb County and Krapina-Zagorje County was launched in 2006, and completed in 2008.
This study was donated to the City of Zagreb and it was prepared by few Czech consultant companies. The main content of this study was to analyse the existing organization of public passenger transport and to assess the potential and justification for the application of this model to the example of the City of Zagreb and its gravitational environment that includes two neighbouring counties.
One of the main recommendations and conclusions of the study was that the model the integrated passenger transport is applicable, justified and recommended for implementation in the area of the City of Zagreb and its surrounding counties.
It was also suggested to continue the research and design of the integrated passenger transport system, or to modify the existing system to the new organization of integrated passenger transport. With the agreement on integrated transport of passengers between the City of Zagreb, Zagreb County and Krapina-Zagorje County (from 2012), the conditions were created for the joint launch of the integrated passenger transport project, which are defined later in the contract on the realization of the Phase I of the integrated passenger transport projects, which also included the creation of two initial subprojects: Preliminary design of the integrated passenger transport organization and Preliminary design of the tariff system of the integrated passenger transport.
Development of these projects based on the results of the tender procedure, had been entrusted to an Austrian-German-Croatian consortium led by the international design-consultancy company Verkehrplus GmbH.
Development of these preliminary projects was contracted in 2013 and was completed and delivered by the end of 2014.
Implementation of the integrated passenger transport – Phase I
Analysis of the current situation shows the demographic structure of the areas of research, description and assessment of the existing infrastructure, and the analysis of transport supply and availability of public transport. The figures below show the area of research, and the demographic structure of the mentioned area.
Figure 1 Demographic characteristics of the area of study
Urban and suburban railway passenger transport in the area of research is mostly located in the corridors of international and regional railway traffic.
Figure 2 Network of urban-suburban railway
The tram network covers an area of approximately 50 km in length and is placed on the inner-city area.
Figure 3 Tram network
Bus network covers the complete area of research in which the urban and suburban transport of passengers involves 32 transport operators, of which only 6 achieves more than 90 per cent of transport efficiency.
Figure 4 Bus network
Proposal for a new model of public transport of passengers and application of the integrated passenger transport model, is based on experiences carried out in the cities and regions of the EU, in which for many years such system is established and operable, as well as it is based on the analysis of potential and justification to modify the existing organization of public passenger transport to the new model.
The main characteristic of the new model which is proposed is bigger role of the urban-suburban railway, which should be of the biggest significance for the public passenger transport in the external urban and suburban area.
Suburban bus lines should be placed on such locations where it is possible and justified to shorten time and to rely on urban-suburban railway.
The tram traffic would retain its dominant role in the narrow area of the City of Zagreb, up until some new rapid urban railway system is constructed.
City bus lines would also maintain the existing concept of organization which is relying on the tram traffic and the railway traffic, if that is possible and justified.
The underlying assumptions of integration of transport systems are: common tariff, joint income, adjusted timetables, and joint administration.
Full advantage of the integrated passenger transport model can be achieved with certain adjustments of transport infrastructure, which mainly refers to devices of intermodal points, terminals and stops, which should all provide an easiest transition from one form of transport to another.
In order to achieve transparent approach in planning the construction and development of the intermodal points, creators of the integrated passenger transport proposal suggested categorization of intermodal points.
An important feature of the new concept of the urban-suburban railway passenger transport organization, as one of the subsystems of the future model of the integrated passenger transport, is stroke timetable with regular intervals in departures. Following the proposal of the project contractor, those intervals would be every 10-30 minutes.
In creating such stroke timetable, besides the usual frequency or interval departures, it is essential to maintain the consistency of departures of various forms of transportation. In particular, this relates to the adjustment of bus timetables, which must be adjusted in such manner that the passengers in the transition from the bus to train are provided with sufficient, but not excessive time for the transition. Of course it is also necessary to take into account the consistency of departures in the railway sub-system, so that the passengers on one train could board another train without larger waiting periods.
Proposal of keeping bus lines in the new organization of urban and suburban passenger transport which is adjusted to the model of integrated passenger transport assumes significant operations in adjusting the transport infrastructure, which primarily relates to the development of intermodal points, of which, most are not regulated at the required level or do not exist.
In process of developing idea of future tariff system for integrated transport in the City of Zagreb, Zagreb County and Krapina-Zagorje County, an analysis of the current situation regarding the application of different tariff systems by operators in the area of research, as well as the comparison of tariff systems in several European cities and regions that have already established integrated passenger transport from the city of Zagreb, is conducted.
Implementation of the integrated passenger transport – Phase II
The projects of the second phase of implementation of integrated passenger transport, were supposed to start more than a year ago, but were postponed due to the instructions issued by Board of transport infrastructure and EU funds (MPPI) that these projects should start after the approval for the Master Plan of the transport system is issued.
Those few projects and studies are as follows:
- Study of the adjustment of the existing operators’ organizational structure to the model of integrated passenger transport,
- The plan to adapt the transport infrastructure to the needs of integrated passenger transport,
- Project of automated charging system and ticketing system in the system of integrated passenger transport,
- Project of passengers/ user briefing system informing on integrated passenger transport.
Figure 5 Staged plan of activities related to the preparation and implementation of integrated passenger transport